8. Opportunities, Challenges, and Power of Media and Information a.Economic, Educational, Social, and Political b.Threats, Risks, Abuse, and Misuse
9. Current and Future Trends of Media and Information a.Massive open online content b.Wearable technology (i.e. Google glass, iPhone watch, etc.) c.3D Environment (i.e. 3D printer, 3D films, holograms, etc.) d.Ubiquitous Learning e. Others
10. Media and Information Literate Individual a.Improved quality of life b.Greater political participation c.Better economic opportunities d.Improved learning environment e.More cohesive social units f.Others
11. People Media a. People as Media and People in Media 1. Definition 2.Characteristics 3.Format and Types 4.Advantages and Limitations 5.Value Others
12. Text Information and Media a.Definition, characteristics, format and types, sources, advantages and limitations, and value b.Text as Visual c.Selection Criteria d.Design principle and Elements
13. Visual Information and Media a.Definition, characteristics, format and types, sources, advantages and limitations, and value b.Visual Message Design c.Selection Criteria d.Design principle and Elements
14. Audio Information and Media a.Definition, characteristics, format and types, sources, advantages and limitations, and value b.Hearing vs. Listening, Learning Out Loud c.Selection Criteria d.Design principle and Elements
ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
Composition An orderly arrangement of elements using the principles of design
The principles of design help you to carefully plan and organize the elements of art so that you will hold interest and command attention. This is sometimes referred to as visual impact.
In any work of art there is a thought process for the arrangement and use of the elements of design. The artist who works with the principles of good composition will create a more interesting piece of art it will be arranged to show a pleasing rhythm and movement. The center of interest will be strong and the viewers will not look away, instead, they will be drawn into the work. A good knowledge of composition is essential in producing good artwork. Some artists today like to bend or ignore these rules and therefore are experimenting with different forms of expression. We think that composition is very important. The following will assist you in understanding the basics of a good composition:
Elements of Design Line - is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. Types of line can include actual, implied, vertical, horizontal, diagonal and contour lines. (note: Ken does not list "psychic line" - that was "new term" to me)
Color - refers to specific hues and has 3 properties, Chroma, Intensity and Value. The color wheel is a way of showing the chromatic scale in a circle using all the colors made with the primary triad. Complimentary pairs can produce dull and neutral color. Black and white can be added to produce tints (add white), shades (add black) and tones (add gray).
Texture - is about surface quality either tactile or visual. Texture can be real or implied by different uses of media. It is the degree of roughness or smoothness in objects.
Shape - is a 2-dimensional line with no form or thickness. Shapes are flat and can be grouped into two categories, geometric and organic.
Form - is a 3-dimensional object having volume and thickness. It is the illusion of a 3-D effect that can be implied with the use of light and shading techniques. Form can be viewed from many angles.
Value - is the degree of light and dark in a design. It is the contrast between black and white and all the tones in between. Value can be used with color as well as black and white. Contrast is the extreme changes between values.
Space - refers to variations in the perspective, and proportions of objects, lines or shapes. There is a variation of sizes in space of objects either real or imagined. (some sources list Proportion/Scale as a Principle of Design)
These elements are used to create the Principles of Design. Principles are the results of using the Elements. When you are working in a particular format (size and shape of the work surface) the principles are used to create interest, harmony and unity to the elements that you are using. You can use the Principles of design to check your composition to see if it has good structure.
Principles of Compositional Design
The principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art. The principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design.
Center of interest - is an area that first attracts attention in a composition. This area is more important when compared to the other objects or elements in a composition. This can be by contrast of values, more colors, and placement in the format.
Balance - is a feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, color, etc. Balance can be symmetrical or evenly balanced or asymmetrical and un-evenly balanced. Objects, values, colors, textures, shapes, forms, etc., can be used in creating a balance in a composition.
Harmony - brings together a composition with similar units. If your composition was using wavy lines and organic shapes you would stay with those types of lines and not put in just one geometric shape. (Notice how similar Harmony is to Unity - some sources list both terms)
Contrast - offers some change in value creating a visual discord in a composition. Contrast shows the difference between shapes and can be used as a background to bring objects out and forward in a design. It can also be used to create an area of emphasis.
Directional Movement - is a visual flow through the composition. It can be the suggestion of motion in a design as you move from object to object by way of placement and position. Directional movement can be created with a value pattern. It is with the placement of dark and light areas that you can move your attention through the format.
Rhythm - is a movement in which some elements recurs regularly. Like a dance it will have a flow of objects that will seem to be like the beat of music.
The Principles of design are the results of your working with the elements of art. Use them in every piece of art you do and you will be happy with the results. http://www.incredibleart.org/files/elements2.htm MULTIMEDIA INFORMATION AND MEDIA Multimedia Information and Media- Refers to materials, programs, applications and the like that teachers and students use to formulate new information to aid learning through the use, analysis, evaluation and production of a combination of different types of media. What is Multimedia? Multimedia –media that uses multiple form of information content and information processing. Using more than one medium of expression or communication.
Multimedia also refers to the use of electronic media to store and experience multimedia content. Examples of Multimedia Application: CD-Interactive Multimedia Kiosks World Wide Web Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
Multimedia is a combination of various elements, such as text, images, video, sound, and animation. Interactive multimedia allows the user to control what and when the elements are delivered (Vaughan, 2001). With the rapid changes in the field of technology, the interactive multimedia has become increasingly popular in education, business, entertainment, and public places. Now multimedia, which has the capability of incorporating various media from text to graphics and from video to sound, is a new way to present information.
Multimedia is the media that uses multiple forms of information content and information processing (e.g. text, audio, graphics, animation, video, interactivity) to inform or entertain the user. Multimedia also refers to the use of electronic media to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is similar to traditional mixed media in fine art, but with a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia.
The use of Multimedia Technology
Advantages of Multimedia 1. Is easy to use. 2. Enhancement of Text Only Messages 3. Improves over Traditional Audio-Video Presentations 4. Gains and Holds Attention 5. Good for “computer-phobics” 6. Multimedia is Entertaining as Well as Educational 7. Cost-effective 8. Trendy
Disadvantages of Multimedia 1. Expensive 2. Not always easy to configure 3. Requires special hardware 4. Not always compatible
The Basic Elements of Multimedia
Text- characters that are used to create words, sentences, and paragraphs.
Graphic- A digital representation of non-text information, such as a drawing, chart, or photograph
Animation- It is a series of graphics that create an illusion of motion.
Video- is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion.
Audio- Sound is the best way to attract attention. Often audio provides the only effective way to convey an idea, elicit an emotion, or dramatize point. Sounds also can be combined in a multimedia presentation to provide information and enhance the other media being presented.
TEXT INFORMATION AND MEDIA
Text Information and Media-refers to materials, programs, applications and the like that teachers and students use to formulate new information to aid learning through the use, analysis, evaluation and production of alphanumeric characters and symbol. Selection Criteria-refers to the set of standards for the analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation of media information for effective and efficient integration to the learning process.
Introduction All multimedia content consists of texts in some form. Even a menu text is accompanied by a single action such as mouse click, keystroke or finger pressed in the monitor (in case of a touch screen). The text in the multimedia is used to communicate information to the user. Proper use of text and words in multimedia presentation will help the content developer to communicate the idea and message to the user. Text in Multimedia Words and symbols in any form, spoken or written, are the most common system of communication. They deliver the most widely understood meaning to the greatest number of people. Most academic related text such as journals, e-magazines are available in the Web Browser readable form. Text elements can be categories into: nAlphabets characters: A –Z nNumber: 0 –9 nSpecial characters: . , ; : „ “ nSymbols: @ # $ & *
The use of Text wHeading / Title wBullet / list wParagraph wScrolling text wNavigation wText as graphics
About Fonts and Faces A typeface is family of graphic characters that usually includes many type sizes and styles. A font is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a particular typeface family. Typical font styles are bold face and italic. Other style attributes such as underlining and outlining of characters, may be added at the users choice. The size of a text is usually measured in points. One point is approximately 1/72 of an inch i.e. 0.0138. The size of a font does not exactly describe the height or width of its characters. This is because the x-height (the height of lower case character x) of two fonts may differ. Typefaces of fonts can be described in many ways, but the most common characterization of a typeface is serif and sans serif. The serif is the little decoration at the end of a letter stroke. Times, Times New Roman, Bookman are some fonts which comes under serif category. Arial, Optima, Verdana are some examples of sans serif font. Serif fonts are generally used for body of the text for better readability and sans serif fonts are generally used for headings. The following fonts shows a few categories of serif and sans serif fonts. F(Serif Font) F (Sans serif font) Selecting Text fonts It is a very difficult process to choose the fonts to be used in a multimedia presentation. Following are a few guidelines which help to choose a font in a multimedia presentation. As many number of type faces can be used in a single presentation, this concept of using many fonts in a single page is called ransom-note topography. For small type, it is advisable to use the most legible font. In large size headlines, the kerning (spacing between the letters) can be adjusted In text blocks, the leading for the most pleasing line can be adjusted. Drop caps and initial caps can be used to accent the words. The different effects and colors of a font can be chosen in order to make the text look in a distinct manner. Anti aliased can be used to make a text look gentle and blended. For special attention to the text the words can be wrapped onto a sphere or bent like a wave. Meaningful words and phrases can be used for links and menu items. In case of text links(anchors) on web pages the messages can be accented. The most important text in a web page such as menu can be put in the top 320 pixels.
VISUAL INFORMATION AND MEDIA Visual Information and Media-Refers to the materials, programs, applications and the like that teachers and students use to formulate new information to aid learning through the use, analysis, evaluation and production of visual images. Visual Message Design-Refers to the design principles and elements in the production of visual media and information that take into consideration the visual perception of the audience in regards with their prior knowledge, culture, etc. Graphics nA digital representation of non-text information, such as a drawing, chart, or photograph. The use of Graphics wTo add emphasis wDirect attention wIllustrate concepts wProvide background content Advantages of Graphics in Multimedia wConvey information more quickly than when using text wMake complex information simple wEnhance online teaching and learning wEnhance communication with some disabled groups, particularly those with learning difficulties or cognitive impairments Disadvantages of Graphics in Multimedia wTake longer to download wRequire the use of plug-ins that the user may not have or be able to install wCreate accessibility barriers for some users GRAPHICS IN MULTIMEDIA Graphics is the most commonly used element of multimedia. The richness of multimedia and the effective communication are through graphic presentations. The attributes of color, texture, pattern and animation enrich a multimedia presentation. Graphics Categories
wImages created with software that uses geometrical formulas to represent images. wComposed of individual elements, eg, arc, line, polygon, with their own attributes that can be individually edited. wCan be created using any drawing software, eg: Illustrator. Vector Graphics -Advantages wThe ability to resize and rotate a graphic without distortions a major advantage of vector graphics. wAnother advantage is their smaller file size. Vector Graphics -Disadvantages wOne of the drawbacks of vector graphics is that the more complex they are, the larger the file size and the longer they take to appear on the screen. wAnother disadvantage is that they cannot display photorealistic quality.
wBitmap graphics are also called raster graphics. wA bitmap represents the image as an array of dots, called pixels. wBitmap graphics are resolution-dependent and generate large file sizes. Bitmap Graphics -Advantages wThe bitmap can be more photorealistic. wWe can set the colour of every individual pixel in the image Bitmap Graphics -Disadvantages wBitmaps are memory intensive, and the higher the resolution, the larger the file size. wWhen an image is enlarged, the individual coloured squares become visible and the illusion of a smooth image is lost to the viewer. Graphic Formats:
GIF stands for Graphics Interchange Format. GIF images are very small in size and so load faster than other formats. GIF make the file size small without losing or blurring any part of the image (lossless compression). GIF also supports transparency i.e they can be pasted on the top of a background image. GIF further supports animation. GIF supports only up to 256 colours.
JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. This format is used to display photographic images. The advantage of using JPEG over GIF is that JPEG can display up to 16 million colors (True-color). Main disadvantage of JPEG is the loss of quality. JPEG does not support transparency or animation.
PNG stands for Portable Network Graphics. It was designed to be an alternative to GIF file format. PNG formats are of two types: PNG-8 format holding 8 bits of color information (Similar to GIF) and PNG-24 format which holds 24 bits of color (similar to JPEG). PNG 24 is loss less. PNG also support transparency, but not animation.
SCANNING: The basic purpose of scanning an image is to digitize it i.e convert it from an analog from into a digital form. Images are typically scanned at resolutions between 50 to 1200 Dots per Inch (DPI). Image resolution refers to number of Pixels per Square Inch. This is commonly called .dots per inch. or .dpi.. In general, high resolution results in better image quality. While image resolution can always be reduced after scanning, increasing resolution after scanning will not improve image quality.
IMAGE EDITING: Digitized images can be edited by any image editing software like Adobe Photoshop or JASC's Paint Shop programme. The software can be used to enhance the image quality, and do several manipulations like crop, duplicate, fill, rotate and flip the image. Deleting and adding images to another image is also one of the interesting manipulations of the editing software.
MOTION INFORMATION AND MEDIA Motion Information and Media- Refers to materials, programs, applications and the like that teachers and students use to formulate new information to aid learning through the use, analysis, evaluation and production of moving text and images. Animation It is a series of graphics that create an illusion of motion. Entertainment multimedia titles in general, and children‟s titles specifically, rely heavily on animation.
The use of Animation To attract attention To inform about the state of process Demonstrations Interactive simulations Video Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. The use of Video The embedding of video in multimedia applications is a powerful way to convey information which can incorporate a personal element which other media lack. Promoting television shows, films, or other non-computer media that traditionally have used trailers in their advertising. Giving users an impression of a speaker’s personality. Showing things that move. For example a clip from a motion picture. Product demos of physical products are also well suited for video. Advantages of Digital Video One of the advantages of digitized video is that it can be easily edited. The video is stored as a standard computer file. Software motion video does not require specialized hardware for playback. Digital video requires neither a video board in the computer nor an external device (which adds extra costs and complexity) such as a videodisc player. Long-lasting. Disadvantages of Digital Video Requires large storage capacity devices. Copies can be made illegally. Need fast computer system for playback and capture. Requires knowledge of digital compression technology. AUDIO INFORMATION AND MEDIA Audio Information and Media- Refers to materials, programs, applications and the like that teachers and students use to formulate new information to aid learning through the use, analysis, evaluation and production of sound. Sound Sound is the best way to attract attention. Often audio provides the only effective way to convey an idea, elicit an emotion, or dramatize point. Sounds also can be combined in a multimedia presentation to provide information and enhance the other media being presented. The use of Sound Music Background Attention grabber Sound effect Speech Narration Instruction MANIPULATIVE INFORMATION AND MEDIA Manipulative Information and Media- Refers to materials, programs, applications and the like that teachers and students use to formulate new information to aid learning through the use, analysis, evaluation and production of interactive and hands-on media. Manipulative media can be both traditional and digital. The use of manipulative media in the classroom is essential since it gives a concrete experience for the learners because students able to explore and investigate. Thus, learning is effective, be it traditional or digital.
Some considerations in choosing manipulative should be in line with the objectives of the lesson. If it requires manual manipulation or using a software, then use it in teaching a lesson.
A concrete example of this use in chemistry is using "balls and sticks" to make models of molecules. In this case, the understanding of the lesson is better since the students can see the 3D of the molecules including bonding between the atoms. Manipulative media is very important tool in learning since it involves kids in learning, this stimulates a lot of senses and this produces better learning retention.
Manipulative- based media should consider: the use, the appropriateness of the manipulative in the learning of the pupils, what medium should be considered, is digital or a manual manipulative and the way how to get feedback from evaluating the used manipulative media.
It can be best used almost in all subject areas but for me it can be best used in Math, Science, History and Computer Education.
Manipulative media is best for tactile learners, wherein students are able learn by their sense of touch or by manipulating objects.